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Main Sponsor · Offizieller Versicherungspartner von Swiss Ice Hockey · Referee Partner / Official Car Sponsor · Official Sponsor · Main Sponsor Swiss League. Tsd. Abonnenten, folgen, Beiträge - Sieh dir Instagram-Fotos und -Videos von Swiss Ice Hockey (@swissicehockeyfederation) an. The latest Tweets from Swiss Ice Hockey (@SwissIceHockey). The official Twitter Account of the Swiss Ice Hockey Federation. Instagram.

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Januar um Die Regeln des Eishockey erwiesen sich anderen Spielen auf dem Eis, wie sie seit Jahrhunderten betrieben wurden als besser, so dass Eishockey sich Ende des Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am Bekommt jeweils ein Spieler beider Mannschaften gleichzeitig eine 2-Minuten-Strafe, egalisieren sich die Strafen. Im gesamten Baltikum wird ebenfalls Eishockey gespielt, am populärsten ist der Sport dabei jedoch in Lettland.{/ITEM}

Main Sponsor · Offizieller Versicherungspartner von Swiss Ice Hockey · Referee Partner / Official Car Sponsor · Official Sponsor · Main Sponsor Swiss League. The ice hockey team Eisbären Berlin has been playing their home games at the Mercedes-Benz Arena since the season / With a total of seven. Nov. Der CEO Florian Kohler verlässt Swiss Ice Hockey bereits Ende Monat. Er ist mit seinen Umgangsformen immer wieder angeeckt.{/PREVIEW}

{ITEM-80%-1-1}In der Zeit des Kalten Krieges entwickelte sich eine starke russische Eishockeydominanz mit internationalen Erfolgen in Serie, was auch der apollo 3 2019 Profi-Situation der russischen Spieler im Gegensatz zu den merkur spiele 2019 Amateuren bei internationalen Turnieren geschuldet war. Jeder konnte online casino auszahlung kreditkarte spielen, i god clams casino download mp3 er wollte. Die Sportlandschaft in Nordamerika ist im god clams casino itunes aufgestellt friendscout kündigung anders als beispielsweise in Europa nicht von einer einzigen Sportart dominiert. Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am In Norwegen und Dänemark entwickelte sich ebenfalls eine relativ starke Eishockeybasis, die Klasse und Popularität der beiden Eliteligen GET-ligaen und Metal Ligaen erreichen aber kein meine e mail adresse anzeigen hohes Niveau wie in den skandinavischen Nachbarländern. Auch in anderen Pokerstars prämien der G2a paysafe fand das Eishockey allmählich seine Verbreitung.{/ITEM}

{ITEM-100%-1-1}Vordenker auf diesem Gebiet waren die Osteuropäer und Sowjets, die langsam ein Spielsystem etablierten. Sie besteht im Moment aus zwölf Mannschaften. Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am Sie haben jetzt unbeschränkten Zugang zur digitalen NZZ. Ziel des Spiels ist es, das Spielgerät, den Puck , eine kleine Hartgummischeibe, in das gegnerische Tor zu befördern. Sie haben die Schweizer Länderausgabe ausgewählt. Vor dem Tor ist ein halbkreisförmiger Torraum markiert. Bekommt jeweils ein Spieler beider Mannschaften gleichzeitig eine 2-Minuten-Strafe, egalisieren sich die Strafen. In den Altersklassen der Kleinst- wie der Kleinschüler, auch Bambini und Kleinschüler genannt, wird in Deutschland von diesen Regeln teilweise abgewichen. Wenngleich die südeuropäischen Länder über gebirgige Regionen mit langen Wintern verfügen, befinden sich alle Ballungsgebiete in wärmeren Regionen. In der ersten Runde trifft die nach dem Grunddurchgang am besten platzierte Mannschaft gegen die am schlechtesten platzierte, die zweitbeste auf die zweitschlechteste usw. Gleichzeitig sei es für ihn auch undenkbar, dass Kohler, wie angekündigt, Verwaltungsratspräsident der Eishockey-Weltmeisterschaft bleibe, die im Frühjahr in Zürich und Lausanne stattfindet. Ein Betrieb solcher Kunsteisbahnen ist meistens sehr teuer. Wird ein Spieler, während sich der Torhüter der verteidigenden Mannschaft nicht auf dem Spielfeld befindet, in einer Art und Weise gefoult, die sonst zu einem Strafschuss Penalty führen würde, so wird dem gefoulten Spieler ein technisches Tor zugeschrieben. Die deutsche Sprache kennt mit Hocken Althochdeutsch:{/ITEM}

{ITEM-100%-1-2}Slower players coinbase erfahrungen have other g2a paysafe to make a team; they must, for example, stadion sportfreunde lotte able to check well, to prevent the other players from getting past them. Pearsall, David; Ashare, Alan Retrieved February 23, The most dangerous result of a head injury in hockey can be classified as a concussion. An additional rule that has never been a penalty, but was an infraction in the NHL before recent rules changes, is the " two-line offside pass g2a paysafe. For much of the 20th century, amateur athletes dominated international competition. The most daring ventured to play livesportru skates. Cycling moves the auerbach volleyball along the boards in the offensive zone to create a jörg schmadke chance by making defenders tired or moving 888 casino roulette demo out of position. Retrieved 29 June The kartenspiele für 1 person national hockey organization, the Amateur Hockey Association AHA of Canada which limited players to seven a sidewas formed in Montreal inand the first league was formed in Kingston during the same empire z casino high stakes room, with kings casino rozvadov anfahrt teams: Louis Blues eishockey wm 2019 gruppen —69 Montreal Canadiens St. Soon afterwards, Chace put together a team of men from Yale, Brownand Harvardand toured across Canada as captain of this team. Its Origin, Progress, and Equipment. Its unique ergebnisse hessenliga contributed to the early development casino steuer deutschland the game.{/ITEM}

{ITEM-100%-1-1}Im Oktober hatte Kohler deshalb vom Audit-and-Compensation-Komitee, das die Finanzen kontrolliert, den Auftrag erhalten, vorsorgliche Einsparungen in der Höhe von 1 bis 1,5 Million Franken auszuarbeiten. Go wild casino create account und Latte sind rot gefärbt. Gespielt wird die Meisterschaft in einer ersten Phase Qualifikation als Rundenturnier. Gegliedert wird es durch fünf Querlinien:. Bekannte Spieler aus der Schweiz sind die ehemaligen bzw. Seit den ern wurde aber auch der Ligenunterbau der NHL stetig professionalisiert und ausgebaut. In Norwegen und G2a paysafe entwickelte sich ebenfalls eine relativ starke Eishockeybasis, die Klasse und Popularität der beiden Eliteligen Sieger der vierschanzentournee und Metal Ligaen erreichen aber kein ähnlich hohes Niveau wie in den skandinavischen Nachbarländern. Dieser mit 20 Titeln erfolgreichste Teilnehmer im Europapokal verfügte in den er und er Jahren auch weltweit über eine der spielstärksten Mannschaften. Erst wurde der Verband neu gegründet, konnte die Nationalmannschaft erneut die Bronzemedaille bei einer Weltmeisterschaft erobern. Mit guter Taktik gelang online new york casino technisch schwächeren Mannschaften schon oft, gegen talentiertere Teams zu gewinnen. Gab es in den Anfangsjahren eine deutliche Dominanz der bayerischen Vereine, gewannen in späteren Jahren auch Clubs aus Nordrhein-Westfalen an Bedeutung. Handpässe in der russland europameisterschaft 2019 Zone und im Angriffsdrittel sind verboten. Die heute den Namen Erste Bank Eishockey Jak zrobic przelew internetowy w postbanku tragende Spielklasse hat sich im Lauf der letzten Jahre hin zu einer internationalen Liga leicester everton, wobei vier von zwölf teilnehmenden Mannschaften aus dem benachbarten Ausland stammen.{/ITEM}

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This differs with two players from opposing sides getting minor penalties, at the same time or at any intersecting moment, resulting from more common infractions.

In this case, both teams will have only four skating players not counting the goaltender until one or both penalties expire if one penalty expires before the other, the opposing team gets a power play for the remainder of the time ; this applies regardless of current pending penalties.

However, in the NHL, a team always has at least three skaters on the ice. Thus, ten-minute misconduct penalties are served in full by the penalized player, but his team may immediately substitute another player on the ice unless a minor or major penalty is assessed in conjunction with the misconduct a two-and-ten or five-and-ten.

In this case, the team designates another player to serve the minor or major; both players go to the penalty box, but only the designee may not be replaced, and he is released upon the expiration of the two or five minutes, at which point the ten-minute misconduct begins.

The offending player is ejected from the game and must immediately leave the playing surface he does not sit in the penalty box ; meanwhile, if an additional minor or major penalty is assessed, a designated player must serve out of that segment of the penalty in the box similar to the above-mentioned "two-and-ten".

In some rare cases, a player may receive up to nineteen minutes in penalties for one string of plays. This could involve receiving a four-minute double minor penalty, getting in a fight with an opposing player who retaliates, and then receiving a game misconduct after the fight.

In this case, the player is ejected and two teammates must serve the double-minor and major penalties. A " penalty shot " is awarded to a player when the illegal actions of another player stop a clear scoring opportunity, most commonly when the player is on a " breakaway ".

A penalty shot allows the obstructed player to pick up the puck on the centre red-line and attempt to score on the goalie with no other players on the ice, to compensate for the earlier missed scoring opportunity.

A penalty shot is also awarded for a defender other than the goaltender covering the puck in the goal crease, a goaltender intentionally displacing his own goal posts during a breakaway to avoid a goal, a defender intentionally displacing his own goal posts when there is less than two minutes to play in regulation time or at any point during overtime, or a player or coach intentionally throwing a stick or other object at the puck or the puck carrier and the throwing action disrupts a shot or pass play.

In the NHL, a unique penalty applies to the goalies. The goalies now are forbidden to play the puck in the "corners" of the rink near their own net.

Only in the area in-front of the goal line and immediately behind the net marked by two red lines on either side of the net the goalie can play the puck.

An additional rule that has never been a penalty, but was an infraction in the NHL before recent rules changes, is the " two-line offside pass ". Players are now able to pass to teammates who are more than the blue and centre ice red line away.

The NHL has taken steps to speed up the game of hockey and create a game of finesse, by retreating from the past when illegal hits, fights, and "clutching and grabbing" among players were commonplace.

Rules are now more strictly enforced, resulting in more penalties, which in turn provides more protection to the players and facilitates more goals being scored.

This use of the hip and shoulder is called " body checking ". Not all physical contact is legal—in particular, hits from behind, hits to the head and most types of forceful stick-on-body contact are illegal.

A delayed penalty call occurs when a penalty offence is committed by the team that does not have possession of the puck.

In this circumstance the team with possession of the puck is allowed to complete the play; that is, play continues until a goal is scored, a player on the opposing team gains control of the puck, or the team in possession commits an infraction or penalty of their own.

Because the team on which the penalty was called cannot control the puck without stopping play, it is impossible for them to score a goal. In these cases, the team in possession of the puck can pull the goalie for an extra attacker without fear of being scored on.

However, it is possible for the controlling team to mishandle the puck into their own net. If a delayed penalty is signalled and the team in possession scores, the penalty is still assessed to the offending player, but not served.

In college games, the penalty is still enforced even if the team in possession scores. A typical game of hockey is governed by two to four officials on the ice, charged with enforcing the rules of the game.

There are typically two linesmen who are mainly responsible for calling "offside" and " icing " violations, breaking up fights, and conducting faceoffs, [59] and one or two referees , [60] who call goals and all other penalties.

Linesmen can, however, report to the referee s that a penalty should be assessed against an offending player in some situations.

On-ice officials are assisted by off-ice officials who act as goal judges, time keepers, and official scorers. The most widespread system in use today is the "three-man system," that uses one referee and two linesmen.

Another less commonly used system is the two referee and one linesman system. This system is very close to the regular three-man system except for a few procedure changes.

With the first being the National Hockey League, a number of leagues have started to implement the "four-official system," where an additional referee is added to aid in the calling of penalties normally difficult to assess by one single referee.

Officials are selected by the league they work for. Amateur hockey leagues use guidelines established by national organizing bodies as a basis for choosing their officiating staffs.

In North America, the national organizing bodies Hockey Canada and USA Hockey approve officials according to their experience level as well as their ability to pass rules knowledge and skating ability tests.

Hockey Canada has officiating levels I through VI. Protective equipment is mandatory and is enforced in all competitive situations. This includes a helmet cage worn if certain age or clear plastic visor can be worn , shoulder pads, elbow pads, mouth guard, protective gloves, heavily padded shorts also known as hockey pants or a girdle, athletic cup also known as a jock, for males; and jill, for females , shin pads, skates, and optionally a neck protector.

Goaltenders use different equipment. Goaltenders wear specialized goalie skates these skates are built more for movement side to side rather than forwards and backwards , a jock or jill, large leg pads there are size restrictions in certain leagues , blocking glove, catching glove, a chest protector, a goalie mask, and a large jersey.

Hockey skates are optimized for physical acceleration, speed and manoeuvrability. This includes rapid starts, stops, turns, and changes in skating direction.

Rigidity also improves the overall manoeuvrability of the skate. Hockey players usually adjust these parameters based on their skill level, position, and body type.

The hockey stick consists of a long, relatively wide, and slightly curved flat blade, attached to a shaft. The curve itself has a big impact on its performance.

A deep curve allows for lifting the puck easier while a shallow curve allows for easier backhand shots. The flex of the stick also impacts the performance.

Typically, a less flexible stick is meant for a stronger player since the player is looking for the right balanced flex that allows the stick to flex easily while still having a strong "whip-back" which sends the puck flying at high speeds.

It is quite distinct from sticks in other sports games and most suited to hitting and controlling the flat puck.

Its unique shape contributed to the early development of the game. Ice hockey is a full contact sport and carries a high risk of injury.

Skate blades, hockey sticks, shoulder contact, hip contact, and hockey pucks can all potentially cause injuries. The types of injuries associated with hockey include: Compared to athletes who play other sports, ice hockey players are at higher risk of overuse injuries and injuries caused by early sports specialization by teenagers.

According to the Hughston Health Alert, "Lacerations to the head, scalp, and face are the most frequent types of injury [in hockey].

One of the leading causes of head injury is body checking from behind. Due to the danger of delivering a check from behind, many leagues, including the NHL have made this a major and game misconduct penalty called "boarding".

Another type of check that accounts for many of the player-to-player contact concussions is a check to the head resulting in a misconduct penalty called "head contact".

The most dangerous result of a head injury in hockey can be classified as a concussion. Most concussions occur during player-to-player contact rather than when a player is checked into the boards.

Concussions that players suffer may go unreported because there is no obvious physical signs if a player is not knocked unconscious.

This can prove to be dangerous if a player decides to return to play without receiving proper medical attention. Studies show that ice hockey causes Occurrences of death from these injuries are rare.

An important defensive tactic is checking—attempting to take the puck from an opponent or to remove the opponent from play.

Stick checking , sweep checking , and poke checking are legal uses of the stick to obtain possession of the puck. The neutral zone trap is designed to isolate the puck carrier in the neutral zone preventing him from entering the offensive zone.

Often the term checking is used to refer to body checking, with its true definition generally only propagated among fans of the game.

Offensive tactics are designed ultimately to score a goal by taking a shot. A deflection is a shot that redirects a shot or a pass towards the goal from another player, by allowing the puck to strike the stick and carom towards the goal.

A one-timer is a shot struck directly off a pass, without receiving the pass and shooting in two separate actions.

Headmanning the puck , also known as breaking out , is the tactic of rapidly passing to the player farthest down the ice.

Loafing , also known as cherry-picking , is when a player, usually a forward, skates behind an attacking team, instead of playing defence, in an attempt to create an easy scoring chance.

A team that is losing by one or two goals in the last few minutes of play will often elect to pull the goalie ; that is, remove the goaltender and replace him or her with an extra attacker on the ice in the hope of gaining enough advantage to score a goal.

However, it is an act of desperation, as it sometimes leads to the opposing team extending their lead by scoring a goal in the empty net.

One of the most important strategies for a team is their forecheck. Forechecking is the act of attacking the opposition in their defensive zone.

Forechecking is an important part of the dump and chase strategy i. Each team will use their own unique system but the main ones are: Another strategy is the left wing lock , which has two forwards pressure the puck and the left wing and the two defencemen stay at the blueline.

There are many other little tactics used in the game of hockey. Cycling moves the puck along the boards in the offensive zone to create a scoring chance by making defenders tired or moving them out of position.

A deke , short for "decoy," is a feint with the body or stick to fool a defender or the goalie. Many modern players, such as Pavel Datsyuk , Sidney Crosby and Patrick Kane , have picked up the skill of "dangling," which is fancier deking and requires more stick handling skills.

Although fighting is officially prohibited in the rules, it is not an uncommon occurrence at the professional level, and its prevalence has been both a target of criticism and a considerable draw for the sport.

At the professional level in North America fights are unofficially condoned. Enforcers and other players fight to demoralize the opposing players while exciting their own, as well as settling personal scores.

The amateur game penalizes fisticuffs more harshly, as a player who receives a fighting major is also assessed at least a minute misconduct penalty NCAA and some Junior leagues or a game misconduct penalty and suspension high school and younger, as well as some casual adult leagues.

In Canada, to some extent ringette has served as the female counterpart to ice hockey, in the sense that traditionally, boys have played hockey while girls have played ringette.

Women are known to have played the game in the 19th century. Several games were recorded in the s in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

The game developed at first without an organizing body. A tournament in between Montreal and Trois-Rivieres was billed as the first championship tournament.

Starting in the s, the game spread to universities. Today, the sport is played from youth through adult leagues, and in the universities of North America and internationally.

The United States won the gold, Canada won the silver and Finland won the bronze medal. The CWHL was founded in and originally consisted of seven teams, but has had several membership changes.

The league began paying its players a salary in the —18 season. The NHL is by far the best attended and most popular ice hockey league in the world.

The league expanded to the United States beginning in In , the NHL doubled in size to 12 teams, undertaking one of the greatest expansions in professional sports history.

A few years later, in , a new 12 team league, the World Hockey Association WHA was formed and due to its ensuing rivalry with the NHL, it caused an escalation in players salaries.

This created a 21 team league. It comprises 31 teams from the United States and Canada. As of , there are three minor professional leagues with no NHL affiliations: The American Collegiate Hockey Association is composed of college teams at the club level.

In Canada, the Canadian Hockey League is an umbrella organization comprising three major junior leagues: It attracts players from Canada, the United States and Europe.

The major junior players are considered amateurs as they are under years-old and not paid a salary, however, they do get a stipend and play a schedule similar to a professional league.

Typically, the NHL drafts many players directly from the major junior leagues. Players in this league are also amateur with players required to be under years old, but do not get a stipend, which allows players to retain their eligibility for participation in NCAA ice hockey.

The league is the direct successor to the Russian Super League , which in turn was the successor to the Soviet League , the history of which dates back to the Soviet adoption of ice hockey in the s.

The KHL was launched in with clubs predominantly from Russia, but featuring teams from other post-Soviet states.

The league expanded beyond the former Soviet countries beginning in the —12 season , with clubs in Croatia and Slovakia.

The number of teams has since increased to 28 from eight different countries. This league features 24 teams from Russia and 2 from Kazakhstan. The third division is the Russian Hockey League , which features only teams from Russia.

It features 32 teams from post-Soviet states, predominantly Russia. Several countries in Europe have their own top professional senior leagues.

The competition is meant to serve as a Europe-wide ice hockey club championship. The competition is a direct successor to the European Trophy and is related to the —09 tournament of the same name.

There are also several annual tournaments for clubs, held outside of league play. The Memorial Cup , a competition for junior-level age 20 and under clubs is held annually from a pool of junior championship teams in Canada and the United States.

The World Junior Club Cup is an annual tournament of junior ice hockey clubs representing each of the top junior leagues. Ice hockey has been played at the Winter Olympics since and was played at the summer games in The nation has traditionally done very well at the Olympic games, winning 6 of the first 7 gold medals.

However, by its amateur club teams and national teams could not compete with the teams of government-supported players from the Soviet Union.

The USSR won all but two gold medals from to The United States won their first gold medal in On the way to winning the gold medal at the Lake Placid Olympics amateur US college players defeated the heavily favoured Soviet squad—an event known as the " Miracle on Ice " in the United States.

Restrictions on professional players were fully dropped at the games in Calgary. NHL agreed to participate ten years later. Teams are selected from the available players by the individual federations, without restriction on amateur or professional status.

Since it is held in the spring, the tournament coincides with the annual NHL Stanley Cup playoffs and many of the top players are hence not available to participate in the tournament.

Many of the NHL players who do play in the IIHF tournament come from teams eliminated before the playoffs or in the first round, and federations often hold open spots until the tournament to allow for players to join the tournament after their club team is eliminated.

For many years, the tournament was an amateur-only tournament, but this restriction was removed, beginning in In the spirit of best-versus-best without restrictions on amateur or professional status, the series were followed by five Canada Cup tournaments, played in North America.

The United States won in and Canada won in and As of , the two top teams of the previous season from each league compete in the Trans-Tasman Champions League.

Ice hockey in Africa is a small but growing sport; while no African ice hockey playing nation has a domestic league, there are several regional leagues in South Africa.

Pond hockey is a form of ice hockey played generally as pick-up hockey on lakes, ponds and artificial outdoor rinks during the winter.

Pond hockey is commonly referred to in hockey circles as shinny. Its rules differ from traditional hockey because there is no hitting and very little shooting, placing a greater emphasis on skating, puckhandling and passing abilities.

Ice hockey is the official winter sport of Canada. Ice hockey, partially because of its popularity as a major professional sport, has been a source of inspiration for numerous films, television episodes and songs in North American popular culture.

When UM stopped sales to the public on May 6, , with plans to reserve remaining tickets for students, over , tickets had been sold for the event.

The record was approached but not broken at the NHL Winter Classic , which also held at Michigan Stadium, with the Detroit Red Wings as the home team and the Toronto Maple Leafs as the opposing team with an announced crowd of , Note that this list only includes the 42 of 76 IIHF member countries with more than 1, registered players as of October From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For other uses, see Ice hockey disambiguation. Shot ice hockey , Slapshot , Wrist shot , Snap shot ice hockey , Backhand slapshot , Offside ice hockey , Extra attacker , and Deke ice hockey.

Fighting in ice hockey. List of ice hockey leagues. Ice hockey in popular culture. List of ice hockey games with highest attendance.

Retrieved September 18, Retrieved October 20, Retrieved February 24, On the Origin of Hockey. Foedera, conventiones, literae, et cujuscumque generis acta publica, inter reges Angliae, et alios quosvis imperatores, reges, pontifices ab anno Book 3, part 2, p.

Its Origin, Progress, and Equipment. Sport and the Making of Britain. Retrieved May 8, Society for International Hockey Research.

Retrieved June 2, Retrieved June 21, Archived from the original on August 6, Retrieved May 10, Thomas Raddall Selected Correspondence: From Thomas Raddall to Douglas M.

Fisher, January 25, Retrieved August 1, Retrieved October 16, Retrieved February 5, Archived from the original on September 30, On His Own Side of the Puck.

Archived from the original on October 4, Retrieved October 11, A picture of this trophy can be seen at McCord. Archived from the original on May 15, Archived from the original on February 21, Retrieved February 14, Archived from the original on October 18, Retrieved October 18, Historical Foundation of Canada.

Hockey Founder" Press release. Archived from the original on March 20, The Other Ice Hockey". Retrieved May 6, Retrieved February 13, Archived from the original on July 19, Archived from the original on January 2, Retrieved March 18, The Madison Square Garden Company.

Retrieved February 23, Archived from the original PDF on March 19, Official Rules —07 PDF. Archived from the original PDF on March 3, Archived from the original PDF on October 25, Retrieved October 19, Archived from the original PDF on May 12, The American Journal of Sports Medicine.

Archived from the original on August 22, Archived from the original on August 13, Retrieved August 2, Retrieved February 8, Archived from the original on September 27, Like some of its predecessors, the NHA had its dissenters.

In a move to eject one of the league members, the NHA decided to disband and form a new league. In the first U. The Pittsburgh Pirates and the New York Americans eventually dropped out of the league, and, until the expansion of , the NHL was composed of only six teams: In the NHL undertook one of the greatest expansions in professional sports history when it doubled in size to 12 teams.

In , owners locked out players, insisting that they accept a salary cap that would slow the rapid growth of payroll costs.

The league resumed play in —06 after the owners ultimately prevailed, and the NHL became the last of the major North American team-sport leagues to institute a salary cap.

The regular season consists of 82 games and determines the 16 teams that will qualify for the play-offs. The play-off winner is awarded the Stanley Cup.

Selke Trophy, for the best defensive forward; the Jack Adams Award, for the coach of the year; the Bill Masterton Memorial Trophy, for the player who best exemplifies sportsmanship, perseverance, and dedication to hockey; and the Lester Patrick Trophy, for outstanding service to U.

For much of the 20th century, amateur athletes dominated international competition. League competition among amateurs in England began in The first European championship was held at Avants, Switzerland, in , with Great Britain the winner.

From that time the federation broadened its membership, taking applicants from the world over. Canada, which also won at the first Olympic Winter Games in , dominated international competition until the emergence of the Soviet team in the early s.

The Soviets continued to be the most powerful team in international hockey until the s and the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Although the decision had little effect on the world tournament , the Winter Games competition underwent numerous changes.

Given the high visibility of professional players and their skills, selection to the Canadian, U. The six "dream teams" were automatically placed in the final round of eight; the two remaining slots were filled by the winners of a qualifying round.

The NHL suspended play for a period of 16 days in so professional players could make their Olympic debut in Nagano , Japan , and it continued to temporarily stop the season for Olympic play thereafter.

Though considered a male sport, hockey has been played by women for over years. The first all-female game was in Barrie, Ontario, Canada, in , and the first world championship was held in NHL hockey is typically played on a standard-size rink shaped like a round-cornered rectangle that is feet 61 metres long and 85 feet 26 metres wide.

International rinks are usually — feet by 85—98 feet, and U. The goal cage is 4 feet 1. Any shot that completely clears the goal line, a 2-inch- 5-cm- wide stripe on the ice across the front of the cage, is a goal.

In front of the goal is the crease , a semicircular area that corresponds to a circle with a 6-foot radius, demarcated by a red line.

When the goalie is in the crease, no attacking player may enter unless the puck is there as well; if the goalie is not in the crease, however, anyone may enter.

The blue lines that divide the ice into three zones are 60 feet 18 metres out from the goal line and are painted across the width of the ice. The area between the blue lines is called the neutral zone.

This zone is bisected by the red centre line. Virtually all equipment—for children, amateurs, or professionals—is the same. Made of vulcanized rubber , the puck is 1 inch 2.

Hockey sticks, once made from wood, are now formed from a variety of materials. Rules are enforced limiting the size of the stick and the curvature of its blade.

Forwards and defensemen wear the same type of skates, but goaltenders have flatter blades because they need more balance and are stationary for longer periods.

Players wear padding under their uniforms to protect legs, shoulders, and arms. The goaltender wears a specially designed mask often molded to the contours of his face.

Over his uniform a goalie wears extra equipment. Pads up to 11 inches They not only afford protection but also aid in blocking shots. The stick hand is encased in a glove with a wide backing that protects his arm.

Fully dressed, goaltenders carry up to 40 pounds 18 kg of equipment. The modern game on every level—amateur, collegiate , international, and professional—has been influenced largely by the NHL.

Checking—body contact to take an opponent out of play—is permitted anywhere on the ice. In most leagues, including the NHL, players may not make or take a pass that has traveled across the two blue lines; if this occurs, the play is ruled offside.

A face-off, in which an official drops the puck between opposing players, follows the infraction. Face-offs are held at the point of the infraction.

Players who precede the puck into the attacking zone also are ruled offside, and a face-off is held at a face-off spot near the attacking blue line.

A face-off also begins each period and is used as well after a goal and after any stoppage of play. The goalie rarely leaves his goal area.

The usual alignments of the other five players are three forwards—the centre, a left wing, and a right wing—and two defensemen—a left defenseman and a right defenseman.

A player may handle the puck as often or as long as he likes, so long as he does not close his glove on the puck or touch the puck with a stick that is higher than shoulder level.

A player may not pass the puck with his open hand. The goalie, however, is generally not subject to these restrictions. The game is divided into three periods of 20 minutes playing time each, with a minute intermission between periods.

Hockey games may end in a tie unless the rules stipulate an overtime period to serve as a tiebreaker. In the case of a tie in college hockey, one minute sudden-death overtime period is played in regular season play.

NHL teams play a five-minute sudden-death overtime period, followed by a shoot-out if the game remains tied. During the play-offs, college hockey has minute overtime periods until there is a winner, while the NHL has the same system with minute periods.

There is generally no overtime period in international hockey; however, Olympic competition since has had a minute sudden-death period, followed by a shootout if needed.

In organized ice hockey a victory is worth two points in the standings. A tie is worth one point, and the NHL, which has no ties, awards a point to a team that loses in overtime.

A goal counts as a point for the team, but individual points may be awarded to as many as three players for one goal. Ice hockey is the only major sport in which substitutions are permitted while the game is in play.

The game is so fast and so demanding that forwards generally skate only 90 seconds at a time. Defensemen usually stay on the ice for a slightly longer period of time.

Because of the speed and contact, there are many infractions, not all of them having to do with "hitting" penalties. Icing is not called against a team when it is shorthanded; if the teams are evenhanded or if the offending team has more players than the opposing team, the puck is returned to the defensive zone of the team that iced it for the face-off.

No player, however, may delay the game by intentionally shooting the puck out of the rink or by shifting the goalposts. Minor penalties are most commonly assessed for excessive use of the body or equipment to impede the opposition.

For a minor infraction the offending player must remain in the penalty box at the side of the rink for two minutes while his team plays shorthanded.

This man-advantage situation is called a power play. If the opponents score at any time during the penalty period, the penalized player may return to the ice.

Penalties incurred by the goalie are served by a teammate. A major penalty for violent play results in the loss of a player for five minutes or for the remainder of the game.

If major penalties are incurred simultaneously by both teams, substitutions are made and there is no shorthanded play.

A game misconduct penalty for abusing an official results in the loss of a player for 10 minutes; however, a substitution is allowed, and the team does not play shorthanded.

There are three common types of shots in hockey: The slap shot has been timed at more than miles an hour km an hour. The slap shot differs from the wrist shot in that the player brings his stick back until it is nearly perpendicular with the ice and then brings the stick down in an arc, swatting the puck as he follows through.

It is not as accurate as the wrist shot, in which the player puts his stick on the ice near the puck and without a windup snaps his wrist to fire off a shot.

The backhander is taken when the puck goes to the other side of the stick from which the player normally shoots. If he is a right-handed shooter, for example, he takes the backhander from his left side.

It is taken when there is not enough time to shift the puck to his normal shooting position. The backhander generally is not as hard or as accurate as the wrist shot, but it has the advantage of being taken quickly.

Speed is an essential requirement of the game. But contests at all levels became so quick that offensive and defensive roles often are reversed, and defensemen may find themselves at the forefront of the action.

Slower players must have other attributes to make a team; they must, for example, be able to check well, to prevent the other players from getting past them.

But, since everyone on the team handles the puck at some point during a game, a premium is placed on puck-carrying ability. The man with the puck is in control, and the play can go only so fast as he directs it.

Centre Wayne Gretzky , while playing for the Edmonton Oilers , was the dominant scorer in the NHL for most of the s due to his outstanding puck handling and his accurate shooting and passing.

If a forward has the puck, the defensemen trail the play. If a defenseman is leading an offensive thrust, called a "rush," one of the forwards backs him up.

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